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Foto van Dr. Silvia Mamede MD, PhD
Dr. Silvia Mamede MD, PhD
Associate Professor Erasmus MCiMERR

Sílvia Mamede, MD, PhD

Associate professor


Sílvia Mamede earned a PhD degree from the Erasmus University Rotterdam (2006) with a thesis on reflective practice in medicine developed under the supervision of Prof. Henk Schmidt. After her PhD, she continued to work with the research group on medical expertise from the Department of Psychology, Erasmus University. Before moving to the Netherlands, Sílvia Mamede worked in postgraduate and continuous medical education in Brazil and was the dean of the School of Public Health in Ceará, one of the first institutions to adopt problem-based learning for health professionals education in the country. Sílvia is one of the co-founders of iMERR and her research interests include medical expertise development, clinical reasoning and decision-making, clinical education, reflective practice and experiential learning.


  1. Mamede S, Van Gog T, Van den Berge K, Van Saase JLCM, Schmidt HG. Why do doctors make mistakes? A study on the role of salient distracting clinical features. Acad Med. 2014;89:00–00. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000077.
  2. Schmidt HG, Mamede S, Van den Berge K, Van Gog T, Van Saase JLCM, Rikers RMJP. Exposure to media information can cause doctors to misdiagnose similar-looking clinical cases. Acad Med. 2014;89:00–00. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000107
  3. Mamede S, Schmidt HG. The twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism in clinical practice. Med Educ. 2014;48:34-43.
  4. Mamede S, Loyens S, Ezequiel O, Tibiriçá S, Penaforte J, Schmidt H. Effects of reviewing routine practices on learning outcomes in continuing education. Med Educ. 2013;47(7):701-10.
  1. Chamberlain M, Mamede S, St-Onge C, Rivard MA, Setrakian J, Lévesque A, Lanthier L, Schmidt HG, Rikers RM. Students’ self-explanations while solving unfamiliar cases: the role of biomedical knowledge. Med Educ. 2013;47(11):1109-16.
  2. Croskerry P, Singhal G, Mamede S. Cognitive debiasing 2: impediments to and strategies for change. BMJ Qual Saf. 2013;22 Suppl 2:ii65-ii72.
  3. Croskerry P, Singhal G, Mamede S. Cognitive debiasing 1: origins of bias and theory of debiasing. BMJ Qual Saf. 2013;22 Suppl 2:ii58-ii64.
  4. St-Onge C, Martineau B, Harvey A, Bergeron L, Mamede S, Rikers R. From see one do one, to see a good one do a better one: Learning physical examination skills through peer observation. Teach Learn Med. 2013;25(3):195-200.
  5. Martineau B, Mamede S, St-Onge C, Rikers RM, Schmidt HG. To observe or not to observe peers when learning physical examination skills: that is the question. BMC Med Educ. 2013;17;13-55.
  6. Van den Berge K, Mamede S. Cognitive diagnostic error in internal medicine. Eur J Intern Med. 2013;24(6):525-529.
  7. Mamede S, van Gog T, Moura AS, de Faria RMD, Peixoto JM, Rikers RMJP, Schmidt HG. Reflection as a strategy to foster medical students’ acquisition of diagnostic competence. Med Educ. 2012;46:464-72.
  8. van den Berge K, Mamede S, van Gog T, Romijn JA, van Guldener C, Van Saase JL, Rikers RM. Accepting diagnostic suggestions by residents: a potential cause of diagnostic error in medicine. Teach Learn Medicine. 2012;24(2):149-54.
  9. Mamede S, Splinter TAW, van Gog T, Rikers RMJP, Schmidt HG.  Exploring the role of salient irrelevant clinical features in the emergence of diagnostic errors and the mechanisms through which reflection counteracts mistakes. BMJ Qual Saf. 2012. doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2011-000518.
  10. Chamberland M, St-Onge C, Setrakian J, Lanthier L, Bergeron L, Bourget A, Mamede S, Schmidt HG, Rikers RMJP. The influence of medical students’ self explanations on diagnostic performance. Med Educ. 2011;45:688-95.
  11. Van den Berge K, van Gog T, Mamede S, Van Saase JLCM, Rikers RMJP. Acquisition of visual perceptual skills from worked examples: learning to interpret electrocardiograms (ECGs). Interact Learn Envir. 2011; doi:10.1080/10494820.2011.554422.
  12. Ciaschi A, Caprara A, Gillespie F, Furnari G, Mamede S. Changing doctors’ behaviours: an educational program to disseminate a new clinical pathway for the hospital management of hip fractures in elderly patients in the Lazio Region, Italy. J Eval Clin Pract. 2011;17:811-8.
  13. Mamede S, Van Gog T, Van den Berge K, Rikers RMJP, Van Saase JLCM, Van Guldener C, Schmidt HG. Effect of availability bias and reflective reasoning on diagnostic accuracy among internal medicine residents. JAMA.2010;304(11):1198-1203.
  14. Mamede S, Schmidt HG, Rikers RMJP, Custers EJFM, SplinterTAW, Van Saase JLCM. Conscious thought beats deliberation without attention in diagnostic decision-making: at least when you are an expert. Psychol Res. 2010;74:586-592.
  15. Al-Moamary MS, Mamede S, Schmidt HG. Innovations in medical internship: benchmarking and application within the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Educ Health. 2010;23(1):367. Epub 2010 Apr 17.
  16. Mamede S, Schmidt HG, Rikers R, Penaforte JC, Coelho-Filho JM. Influence of perceived difficulty of cases on physicians’ diagnostic reasoning. Acad Med. 2008;83:1210-1216.
  17. Mamede S, Schmidt HG, Penaforte JC. Effects of reflective practice on accuracy of medical diagnoses. Med Educ. 2008:42:468–475.
  18. De Luca A, Caprara A, Barbolini M, Francia C, Ferri M, Mamede S, Borgia P, Guasticchi G. Continuing medical education and evidence-based clinical pathways. Training emergency health workers in Latium, Italy. Educ Health. 2008 Mar; 21(1):119.
  19. Mamede S, Schmidt HG, Rikers R, Penaforte JC, Coelho-Filho JM. Breaking down automatically: Case ambiguity and shift to reflective approaches in clinical reasoning. Med Educ. 2007;41:1185–1192.
  20. Mamede S, Schmidt HG, Rikers R. Diagnostic errors and reflective practice in Medicine. J Eval Clin Pract. 2007;13(1):138-45.
  21. Mamede S, Schmidt HG, Norman GR. Innovations in Problem-based Learning: What we can Learn from recent Studies. Adv Health Sci Educ. 2006 Nov;11(4):403-22.
  22. Mamede S, Schmidt, HG. Correlates of Reflective Practice in Medicine. Adv Health Sci Educ. 2005; 10:327–337.
  23. Mamede S, Schmidt HG. The Structure of Reflective Practice in Medicine. Med Educ. 2004;38:1302-08.
  24. Wiers R, van de Wiel M, Sa H, Mamede S, Tomaz B and Schmidt H. Design of a problem-based curriculum: A general approach and a case study in the domain of public health. Med Teach. 2002;24(1):45-51.
  25. Ausse J, Omar MA, Mamede S, Macedo MC, Pinto A, Campos JS. Developing an information system to support the pursuit of descentralization: the perspective of Ceará State in Brazil. J Manag Med. 1995;9(4):35-43.
  26. Coelho-Filho JM, Soares SMS, Sá HL. Problem-based learning: application and possibilities in Brazil. São Paulo Med J. 1998;116(4):1784-1785.


Foto van Dr Karen Stegers-Jager
Dr Karen Stegers-Jager

Karen Stegers-Jager is an assistant professor at the Institute of Medical Education Research Rotterdam (iMERR). She holds an MSc in Educational Science and Technology (University of Twente, cum laude). She obtained her PhD in Medical Education from the Erasmus University Rotterdam in 2012.

After her PhD, she worked as a senior educational researcher and consultant at the Erasmus MC Desiderius School. In January 2014 she became a fulltime researcher at iMERR, and in August 2014 she was appointed as assistant professor. In 1999-2000 she spent 11 months at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada as a post-doctoral student and visiting researcher with a grant from the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Talentenbeurs) and from the University of Twente (studiebeurs Stichting Universiteitfonds Twente 1999).
Her three main areas of research are: (1) predictors of medical school performance, with a special focus on ethnic minority and first-generation university students, (2) unraveling ethnic disparities in undergraduate clinical performance, and (3) selection and admission of medical students and residents.
Karen has published several articles in Medical Education, ranked number one in the domain ‘Education, Scientific Disciplines’, including an invited commentary. She has given over 20 presentations and workshops at national and international conferences, individually and in cooperation with national and international colleagues. She was selected for the Erasmus MC Female Career Development program in 2013.
5 recent publications (most recent first)
Stegers-Jager KM, Steyerberg EW, Lucieer SM, Themmen APN. Ethnic and social disparities in performance on medical school selection criteria. Med Educ 2014; in press. [IF: 3.61]
Stegers-Jager KM, Cohen-Schotanus J, Themmen APN. The effect of a short integrated study skills programme for first-year medical students at risk of failure: a randomised controlled trial. Med Teach 2013;35:120-126. [IF:2.045]
Stegers-Jager KM, Cohen-Schotanus J, Themmen APN. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance. Med Educ 2012;46:678–688.
Stegers-Jager KM, Steyerberg EW, Cohen-Schotanus J, Themmen APN. 2012. Ethnic disparities in undergraduate pre-clinical and clinical performance. Med Educ 2012;46:575–585.
Stegers-Jager KM, Cohen-Schotanus J, Splinter TAW, Themmen APN. Academic dismissal policy for medical students: Effect on study progress and help-seeking. Med Educ 2011;45:987–994.

Foto van Dr. Margot van Wermeskerken
Dr. Margot van Wermeskerken
PhD Erasmus MCiMERR

Margot van Wermeskerken is an educational consultant Digital Learning and Innovation at Education Policy and Advice at Erasmus MC and research fellow at iMERR.

Margot has a background in Human Movement Sciences where she obtained her Ph.D. on the development of eye-hand coordination in early infancy (VU University, 2012). She then worked as a PostDoc at Educational Psychology at Erasmus University (2013-2015) where she investigated the role between students’ attention allocation and learning from video modeling examples. She continued her research at Educational Sciences at Utrecht University (2015-2019) first as PostDoc and later as Assistant Professor. In her research, she used eye-tracking to investigate students’ attention allocation when learning from video, but also explored how learners’ eye movement patterns may inform teachers about their learning or learning process.

As educational consultant and research fellow, Margot plays an important role in innovating and improving education within Erasmus MC with a focus on blended learning and online learning. She organizes workshops on flipping the classroom and design of effective instructional videos (see https://coo.erasmusmc.nl/dli/agenda/). In line with this, Margot’s research focuses on developing evidence-based design guidelines on how to implement instructional video in educational settings.

Foto van Dr. Andrea Woltman
Dr. Andrea Woltman
Associate professor leading a research group focusing on immunology of viral hepatitis Erasmus MCDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Andrea Woltman is associate professor leading a research group focusing on immunology of viral hepatitis at the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of the Erasmus MC. Next to that, she is Course Director Bachelor Medicine in Erasmus MC.

She received several prestigious research grants, awards and honors rewarding her scientific research and her qualities as educator of young scientists. As a former chair and current member of Young Erasmus, she committed herself to strengthen interdisciplinary research within the EUR and advises the executive board of the EUR on matters related to academic policy including education and research.

She is especially interested in student selection, study behavior and study success. Recently, she initiated research on perceived and biological stress levels in medical students. Together with her co-workers she would like to investigate stress levels in relation to academic performance, study behavior and altered policy regarding binding study recommendation.

Foto van Dr. Laura Zwaan
Dr. Laura Zwaan
Assistant Professor Erasmus MCiMERR

Laura Zwaan is an assistant professor at the institute for Medical Education Research Rotterdam (iMERR).

She has a master degree in cognitive psychology (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 2005) and epidemiology (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam 2010) and a PhD in medicine on the topics of diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic error in medicine (VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, 2012).

After obtaining her PhD, Laura worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the NIVEL and the VU University medical center. She was involved in research on patient safety, clinical reasoning and shared-decision making. Furthermore, she taught and coordinated several courses on patient safety and decision making for bachelor and master students (medicine and psychology), as well as for health care professionals.

In October 2014, Laura started working at iMERR where she conducts research on clinical reasoning with the goal to improve medical students’ and physicians’ clinical decision making. She recently obtained a prestigious grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO-VENI grant) to study the diagnostic process of radiologists.

Laura has published numerous articles on diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic error as well as patient safety. In addition to her work as a researcher, she chaired the first Diagnostic Error in Medicine conference in Europe (http://www.improvediagnosis.org/page/EuroDEM_2016) and is a member of the organizing committee of the annual international Diagnostic Error in Medicine conference. Laura is the chair of the research committee (http://www.improvediagnosis.org/?page=Committees) of the Society to Improve Diagnosis in medicine (SIDM) and on the editorial board of the journal ‘Diagnosis’.

Please find more information about Laura here: https://www.linkedin.com/in/laurazwaan

Articles can be found here: https://scholar.google.nl/citations?user=CoLnfzkAAAAJ&hl=en&oi=ao

Email: l.zwaan@erasmusmc.nl